Day- 10

Language Focus

The Past Continuous

The Past Perfect

The Past Perfect Continuous

The Past Continuous


Subject Verb -
I was sleeping when the telephone rang
We/You were cooking breakfast this time yesterday.
He/ She/ Dad/Nabila was eating breakfast when I entered the house.
They/ Our children were doing their homework when I got home.

⇨ The past continuous is used to express an action that was in progress for a temporary period in the past.

⇨ The past continuous is used to talk about what was already happening at a particular past moment.

⇨ We generally use the past continuous at the beginning of stories.



⛯ I was playing foot ball all last evening.

⛯ You were talking to your boss while I was waiting at the door.

⛯ You were taking a shower when the post man came to deliver a letter.

⛯ You were sleeping when dad left the house.

⛯ While Mullen was driving to office, his car broke down.

⛯ Santana was getting breakfast ready while her husband was doing the dishes.

⛯ The doctor was taking a rest when I knocked at the door.

⛯ It was raining all last night.


⛯ We were waiting for the bus when it started raining.

⛯ You all were watching T V when the thief entered the house.

⛯ My dad and I were listening to grandma’s stories all last night.

⛯ All of us were taking bath twice a day when we were at school.

⛯ At this time yesterday our farmers were desilting the irrigation canals.

⛯ Mom was cooking dinner when the guests arrived. So she felt a little embarrassed.

⛯ A public examination was in progress. Forty students were writing their exam. One boy was copying off another student. The teacher caught him red- handed.

⛯Power went off when I was doing my homework. I felt very happy. When I was watching a movie my mom turned off the television. I felt very angry.

⛯All last night the wind was blowing fiercely.

⛯It was midnight. I was watching a scary movie. There was a knock at the door. I thought it was a ghost. I opened the door. My dog was wagging its tail.

Activity: Past Simple and Past Continuous

Complete the dialogue with an appropriate form of the verb in brackets.

1. Q: What--------- (be) the children (do) when you ------ (get) home?

A: They-----------(be) ------(Play) in the hall.

2. Q: What happened when you-------(be)--------(wait) at the bus stop?

A: It------ (start) raining.

3. Q: Why ------ (do) grandpa-------(get) angry?

A: He -------(get) angry because our dog------- (be) ------- (bark) while he----(be) --------- (read) the papers.

4. Q: How-------(do) the accident---------- (happen)?

A: It---------(happen) because the driver ------(be) -------(greet)his friends over a mobile.

5. Q: What ------ (do) you------ (do) when you-------(see) the accident?

A: As soon as I--------- (see) the accident I-------- (call) the ambulance.

6. Q: Where-------(be) you--------(work) when we first-------(meet)? Do you-----(remember)?

A: I -----(be)------(work) as a receptionist at a nursing home.

7. Q: What -------(be) the class room like when the principal------- (enter)?

A: It------(be) in an awful mess. The boys------ (be)------ (run) around while the girls------(be)------- (scribble) away furiously on the walls.

8. Q: Excuse me madam. Can you tell me what you ------(be)------(do) at 10 o’clock yesterday?

A: I-------(be-------)(give) the final year students detailed instructions on the procedure to be followed at the campus interview.

9. Q: Our neighbours ---------(be)---------(make) too much noise all last night. I ------ (can) not sleep at all. What--------- (be) their problem?

A: They-------(be)--------- (have) a quarrel over sharing corporation water.

10. Q: What--------(be)--------(do) when they --------(be)--------(quarrel)?

A: I -------(be)--------- (take) photos.

The Past Perfect


Subject Verb
I/We/You/He/She/… had finished the work when the bell rang.
They/ Our children… had arrived at the station before the train left.
The train/The bus… had left before we arrived at the station.
The meeting had started when the chief guest arrived.

⇨ We use the past perfect to show that one activity in the past happened before another in the past.

⇨ When two activities are reported in a sentence, we use the past perfect.


1. I had passed the exam before I applied for the job.

2. Your message had reached the office before you came.

3. My dad had arrived at the airport when we reached there.

4. When the minister came the meeting had already started.

5. A patient rang the Dr. Salami’s doorbell at 6.30 yesterday but she had already left the clinic.

6. When Alex opened the suit case he realized he had opened a fellow passenger’s suit case.

7. My dad had cooked breakfast when my mom got up so she was very happy.

8. When the air hostess brought dinner most of the passengers had started sleeping.

9. Israel had destroyed a great part of Lebanon when it agreed to ceasefire.

10.We had locked the door before we left the house.

⇨We use the past perfect in the ‘if clause’ and a ‘modal verb’ in the main clause when we talk about a particular thing which did not happen in the past.


1. If I had studied well I would have scored high in the examination.

2. If Kannagi had been wise she would have saved her husband.

3. If Devi had been prudent, she would not have spent all her salary.

4. If Husain had started on time he would have broken his own previous record.

We use past perfect in sentences such as:

1. The nurse asked me to wait until she had taken my temperature.

2. The doctor advised me rest until I had recovered my strength.

3. Ms. Diana asked her mom to take care of her baby until she had done the dishes.

4. My friends advised me to enter the church after the pastor had finished the sermon.


Past Simple and Past Continuous

Complete the story using the verb in brackets in its appropriate form.

Once there-------(live) a gentleman. He--------- (call) himself Mr. Perfect. So he --------(want) to be perfect in everything he did. In his capacity as chairman of the company he ------(have)------ (draw)up a new disciplinary code which--------- (include) regular attendance and punctuality. He was undoubtedly a positive role model of his employees.

One auspicious day, as usual, Mr. Perfect-------(get) ready to go to work at 9 a.m. Unfortunately his driver -------(have)not--------( report) to work. He-----( get) wild and----- (rush) to the bus station. Before he--------( reach) the station the bus -------(have)------( leave). Disappointed he ---------(hurry) to the railway station. Surprisingly the train-------( have)-----(leave)a little earlier that particular day.

MR. Perfect-------( lose) his temper and------ (ring) his office. The security guard-------( receive) the call and--------( say) nobody--------( have)--------( come) to the office as it------(be) a public holiday. Mr. Perfect--------( realize) that he himself--------( have)--------( declare) a holiday to the office but he-------( have)--------( forget) that.


Ancient Egypt

Read the story and answer the questions. Write a dialogue using the questions and your answers and practice it with a friend.

Dreams were very important to the ancient Egyptians. They believed the gods could communicate with you through your dreams. They also believed that dreams could foretell the future. For example, if an ancient Egyptian dreamed of drinking warm beer, he or she could expect to have something unfortunate happen to them quite soon. A dream like that would send an ancient Egyptian hurrying to an amulet maker, in the hopes of warding off this future evil.

For a while, people slept now and then in the temples so the gods could speak to them in their dreams, and give them clues to future events. This fad had to be discouraged finally by the temple priests because too many people wanted to sleep in the temples at the same time. Instead, the concept of oracles sprang up. Ancient Egyptians could sleep in their own home, have a dream, and then bring their dream to a priest who could interpret it for them. This worked much better, and gave the priests added payment in the form of food or goods.

1. amulet- /ˈæmjulət/=a piece of jewellery that some people wear because they think it protects them from bad luck, illness, etc.

2. ward off = to protect or defend yourself against danger, illness, attack, etc

3. fad /fæd/= something that people are interested in for only a short period of time

4. oracle/ˈɒrəkl= (in ancient Greece) a place where people could go to ask the gods for advice or information about the future; the priest or priestess through whom the gods were thought to give their message


1. Are dreams important to you? Why? Why not?
2. How often do you have dreams?
3. Are they good dreams or bad dreams?
4. Do you believe that dreams can foretell the future? Why? Why not?
5. Who is an amulet maker?
6. Do you ever go to amulet makers? Why? Why not?
7. Why did the ancient Egyptians sleep in the temples?
8. What does an oracle mean?
9. What did the priests at the oracle do for the ancient Egyptians?
10. Do you always remember your dreams? Why? Why not?


Albert Einstein

Read the text and answer the questions. Then write a dialogue using the questions and your answers. Read the dialogue with a friend or your guide.

One day, when Albert Einstein was a small boy, his father brought him a compass. It was a small toy to entertain him. Albert trembled with excitement as he looked at the 'magic' needle turning towards North. He was too young to understand the principle of magnetism, yet he felt that he was in an enchanted world. For him, the compass was not a plaything but a miracle.

In 1921, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics for his contribution to physics and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect. He developed the theory of general relativity, which was a revolution in physics. Einstein is hence regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history.

Once, the Queen of Belgium invited him to pay her a visit. He got down from the train with a suitcase in one hand and a violin in the other, and started on foot for the palace. He did not know that a reception committee was waiting for him at the station.

The Queen's officials looked for him all around. At last they returned to the palace to inform the Queen that Einstein had most probably changed his mind about coming. And suddenly, they saw the dusty figure of a little gray-haired man coming up the road.

“Why didn't you use the car I sent for you?" asked the Queen. The guest looked at her with a smile and answered, "It was a very pleasant walk, Your Majesty." Einstein hated wealth. He would have none of it. Peace, he said, was what the world needed, and that could not be bought with money. Unfortunately, this lover of peace had to witness two World Wars during his lifetime.


1. What did Einstein’s father present him when he was a small boy?
2. Why was the toy compass a miracle for Einstein?
3. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize. When? What was the prize for?
4. Why is Einstein regarded as the father of modern physics?
5. What is the name of the queen who invited Einstein to her palace?
6. Why did Einstein walk to the palace?
7. What does the world need, wealth or peace?
8. Can peace be bought with money?
9. What do people search for, peace or wealth? Why?
10. How many world wars has the world witnessed?


Public Speaking

The Relevance of Fables to Real Life

Model presentation


Honorable principal, respected teachers and my dear friends! It’s indeed my greatest pleasure meeting you all in the pleasant hours of the day and share thoughts on the “Relevance of Fables to Real Life”

First of all I thank the Almighty, the founders, our dear principal and teachers and the organizers of this seminar who have given me this platform to present my paper on “The Relevance of Fables to Real Life”.

Aesop was a slave and a storyteller. He is believed to have lived in ancient Greece between 620 and 564 B.C. We live in an “Age of Artificial Intelligence”. But his fables have significant relevance to the development we see today in our lives, personal, social, political and spiritual as well. To illustrate this fact I have chosen just four stories from Aesope’s fables, “The Thirsty Crow”, The Fox and the Crow”, “The Father and his Sons”, and “The Lazy Horse”.

Let’s start with the Thirsty Crow.

The Story

Once there lived a crow. It was thirsty. It wanted to quench its thirst. It flew everywhere in search of water. There was no water anywhere. It was very tired but it didn’t give up its search. At last the crow found a jar with very little water at the bottom. The crow tried to reach the water but it couldn’t. It believed it could drink the water so the how it could came from within. The crow thought of a plan. He collected some pebbles and dropped them into the jar. The water level rose up. The crow drank the water, quenched its thirst and flew away happily.

The Relevance

The crow had a need, need for water. What did the crow do to fulfill the need? It thought of a plan and worked the plan. At last it fulfilled its need and had need satisfaction. Similarly we come across needs and problems in life. Those who run away from problems don’t achieve anything in life. Those who persevere and persist in their efforts to find solution achieve goals and live better every new moment.

The founders of our school are positive role models. They can be cited for their vision, mission, planning, organizing, executive and evaluative skills. Half a century ago they came to Kanyakumari district with a need to serve the cause of education while our people had a thirst for education. They envisioned the school we have today and the educated and enlightened community we are today even when they had not started the school. So they were able to craft a mission, set goals, plan the project, organize people, draft schedules and execute them. They received feedbacks at every stage of progress and brought in changes for the better. The result is a great dream has come true. St. Alphonsa Matric Higher Secondary School has become the most favored study destination for the children of our district. We enjoy learning for career and life in a learner friendly environment guided by fun loving high profile educators.

What is the relevance of the fable of the Thirsty Crow to the achievement of our dear founders?

They were motivated by the story of the crow. You may wonder how? They started where the crow had left.

The average weight of a crow’s brain is just 15 grams. The average weight of an adult human brain is 1,400 to 1,500 grams. So we can be a hundred times more creative, more innovative and more productive. We have proved that by inventing new things towards making life more comfortable. Just think about the smart classrooms, the internet, and the computers. Every invention makes learning an enjoyable experience and life easier and more comfortable. A day may come when we will have robots to teach us and guide us to achieve excellence in life and career. There’s a consequent threat, too. What will happen if admissions were restricted to robot students alone?

In addition to listening to teachers we have seminars like this, interactive workshops, group discussions and debates which make teaching and learning interesting and effective. All these great developments have a humble beginning in the messages hidden the fables.

We learn the power of unity from the story of “The Father and Sons”. We learn to think before we leap from the story of “The Fox and the Goat”. The fable of “The Fox and the Crow” teaches us how to be careful with conmen. Like that every story of Aesop has an enlightening message to convey.


My dear friends our elder citizens often complain that there is a decline in moral standards. How are we going to revive the declining standard of moral values? In my opinion inclusion of Aesope’s fables in our syllabus can be an effective means to maintaining moral standards because each story conveys a life changing message and a lesson to teach. Thank you everybody for the good time you have shared with me listening to me. Now is time for your questions, feedbacks and sharing thoughts. Please feel free to ask me any question.

Some questions to help you start with,

1. How many of you are in the habit of reading?
2. How many of you are in the habit of reading fables?
3. Do you all have a home library?
4. What kind of books do you generally read?
5. Do you generally share thoughts, messages and the lessons you learn from stories with friends? Why? Why not?
6. Do you really appreciate the speech?
7. Narrate a story you recently read and enjoyed. Share the message the story conveys, please.
8. How many public meetings have you addressed so far?
9. Why are some people afraid of public speaking?
10. What are your tips for improving our public speaking skills?


Talent Show Auditions and Movie casting calls

Hello everybody! We invite you to our Summer-2019 Auditions.

Our auditions are easy and interesting. You don’t have to memorize dialogues. You will just read from the script. Hope you’ll enjoy audition, show off and qualify for our talent shows and movies.

David fights Goliath

Scene-1: Goliath shouts to the ranks of Israel

Goliath: Ha.. ha..ha..ha..! Oh, Israel! Why come out in battle formation? I’m a philistine hero and you are Saul’s servants. Choose one of your men and have him come down to me. If he beats me in the combat and kills me, we’ll be your slaves. But if I beat him and kill him, you shall be our slaves and you shall serve us. I’m ready to fight. Are you? Ha..ha..ha..ha..! Give me your man.

Scene-2: David’s Victory

Goliath: Ha..ha..ha..ha..! Am I a dog that you come against me with a staff?

David: No, I thought you were a fox.

Goliath: Call me a fox? How dare you? Come here to me. I’ll leave your flesh for the birds of the air and the beasts of the field.

David: Why are you shouting your heads off?

Goliath: Shouting my heads off? How dare you? I am armed with bronze helmets, sword and spear.

David: Poor fellow! I pity you. I am armed with courage and confidence.

Goliath: Do you know the power of my muscles?

David: Do you know the power of my spirit?

Goliath: I am a Philistine warrior.

David: I’m my Lord’s messenger.

Goliath: I’ve come to fight you.

David: I’ve come to pass you a message.

Goliath: What’s that message you rat?

David: Listen carefully you brute. Today the Lord delivers you into my hand. I will strike you down and kill you. This very day I’ll leave your corpse for the birds of the air and the beasts of the field. So long your pride ruled your will. And today that pride will doom you to die.

(David hurls a stone with a sling and strikes Goliath down. Goliath falls to the ground.)

Oh! Goliath! Poor Goliath! Num with cold, no longer a hero, no longer a warrior! Let your end be a lesson to all invaders.

(Please listen to the play again and reproduce it as perfectly as you can.)

The Past Perfect Continuous

⇨The Past Perfect Continuous is used to express an action / a state of being which began before a certain time in the past and continued up to that time. Please note that we rarely use the Past Perfect Continuous.

⇨We use the Past Perfect Continuous form to show that an action took place either continuously or repeatedly over a period of time in the past extending up to a definite time in the past.


The past perfect continuous is formed with had been and the ‘ing’ form of the verb.

Subject Verb
I/we/You/He/ She/ Ms.Heather/… had been working..
They/ My dad and I/ Our children… had been living..


1. I had been working in Chennai for five years before I left for Newzealand.
2. We had been studying in Denmark when we left for China.
3. You had been lying unconscious for four days when you were conscious again.
4. The British had been selling opium in China for years when they were expelled.
5. My friends had been working in Kuwait for ten years when the Iraq war broke out.
6. Monish had been studying in Mumbai for four years. No wonder he was able to speak Hindi fluently when finally he left there.
7. Usha was very weak after recovery. She had been suffering a stroke for months.
8. Our dog was out of breath. He had been running behind our car.
9. Ella was very tired when she arrived home. She had been walking all the way home.
10. When my children came into the house their clothes were very dirty, their hair was untidy and their boots were covered in mud because they had been playing in a muddy pond.
11. Today I got up very late and looked out of the window. The Sun was shining bright but the ground was wet. It had been raining the whole night.
12. When I met Mira and Thana they had been fishing in the spillway for hours.


Complete the following sentences using the appropriate form of the verb given in brackets.


Q: Our farmers didn’t want to leave their village though the government ------- ------ ( destroy) all the water bodies because they ------ ------- ------- (live) there all their life. A: Our farmers didn’t want to leave their village though the government had destroyed all their water bodies because they had been living there all their life.

A: Our farmers didn’t want to leave their village though the government had destroyed all their water bodies because they had been living there all their life.

1. Ryan was a wonderful teacher. He ------ ------ -------- (teach)and learning Greek and Mathematics ever since he was a graduate.
2. My students-------- ------- -------(play) matches every weekend but they couldn’t play last week as it was raining.
3. The tourists -------- -------- ------- (stay) in our farm house since they arrived here last month but they had to move out yesterday.
4. We-------- -------- -------- (watch) our children’s talk shows every Sunday but we missed the last show.
5. The Red Indians--------- -------- --------- (live) happily for centuries when Columbus and his men entered America.

Activity-2: Stage the comedy entitled “ Just for Fun-1” and entertain your family and friends.

Just for Fun

Is the Doctor in a hurry?

Patient: Good afternoon doctor. I have…

Doctor: (Pointing the patient to a small cot) Lie down.

Patient: But I don’t have any problem. So I don’t need to lie down ,sir. Please listen to me first.

Doctor: (A little annoyed) I don’t have to listen to you. Lie down first , then we’ll talk.

Patient: (Expressing helplessness obeys doctor’s orders and lies on the cot).

Doctor: Now tell me. What’s your problem?

Patient: Doctor, I have no problem. I have already stated I have no problem.

Doctor: (Angry) Then why are you wasting my time?

Patient: I told your fellow outside about my purpose. But he insisted that I stood in queue and that I would be allowed to see you only when my turn came. So I waited in the queue. When my turn came, I entered your cabin.

Doctor: (Wild with anger) Oh, hell! What’s your purpose?

Patient: I’m from the telephone exchange. I’ve come to check up the problem with your phone. You’ve registered a complaint.

Doctor: Why didn’t you tell me in the first place?

Patient: Did you have the patience to listen to me? Neither your fellow outside nor did you listen to me. What can I do? Sorry doctor, I’ve other appointments. Bye.

chevron-circle-up-solid chevron-circle-left-solid chevron-circle-right-solid home-solid